Dogs have been trained to detect various medical conditions in humans, including epilepsy, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), certain types of cancer, and even impending seizures.
Some studies suggest that dogs may be able to detect certain emotional states in humans, such as fear, anxiety, and stress, through changes in body odor and pheromones.
Dogs are commonly used by law enforcement and military agencies to detect explosives and illegal substances. Their keen sense of smell allows them to locate even tiny amounts of these materials.
Bedbugs emit a specific scent that dogs are capable of detecting. This makes them valuable in pest control efforts to identify and eliminate bedbug infestations.
Dogs have been trained to locate survivors in the aftermath of natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and avalanches by detecting the scent of humans buried under debris.
Some dogs have been trained to detect hormonal changes in women, such as those associated with pregnancy or impending menstruation. However, this ability is not as extensively researched or reliable as some other scent detection capabilities.
Certain specially trained dogs, known as "electronic sniffer dogs," are capable of detecting electronic devices like cell phones, USB drives, and other electronic equipment, which can be useful in security and law enforcement settings.
Dogs have an exceptional ability to distinguish between different scents and flavors, and they can often identify specific ingredients in foods, which is why they're used in industries like truffle hunting.